Female Genital Mutilation – Dangerous Manipulation that Still Takes Place
World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation as any procedure that presupposes total or partial removal of the external genitalia or injury to genital organs for any non-therapeutic reason. Generally, this procedure is carried out mainly on young girls between infancy and 15 years old, before puberty starts. Anyway, FGM is a dangerous tradition that can trigger numerous health disorders and other abnormalities. Such practice is recognized worldwide as a human rights violation. Despite the global decline of the FGM, the occasions still happen, ruining female health, both physical and psychical.
Types of Female Genital Mutilation
There are four types of FGM specified, which include the following:
- Type I, also called clitoridectomy, that presupposes removing the clitoris, either partially or the whole;
- Type II is about clitoris removal and inner labia. The procedure is called excision;
- Type III is the most dangerous and harsh form of mutilation ever known. It is called infibulation. During the procedure, the vaginal orifice is narrowed by cutting and changing the position of labia minora. Only a small opening is left so that the girl could urinate and for menstrual blood to escape.
- Type IV consists of other dangerous female procedures, including pricking, cutting, burning, scraping and piercing.
Short- and Long-Term Consequences and Health Complications
While female genital mutilation has no health advantage, it can launch serious abnormalities. Considering the FGM influence on the organism, it is possible to specify the following disorders that can appear as a result of harmful manipulation:
- Injury to adjacent tissues;
- Urinary retention;
- Dislocation or fracture;
- Death, etc.
These are mainly short-term complications, which can bother females after the procedure. However, there are also long-term influences, such as:
- Problems with menstruation;
- Dermoid cyst;
- Chronic pelvic infection;
- Recurrent urinary tract infection and many others.